6.1ex IV More PL Symbolizations

Symbolize as before. Only now you may use quantifiers and variables as well as names and predicates.

  • You may use the old keyboard shortcuts except that now you must type upper case letters for the predicates. (You can see why, right?)
  • Use the '^' or the 'V' for the upside down-A and the '%' or the '3' for the backward-E. (It's really worth it to download and install the Logic font! See the home page.)
  • You may type a quantifier and variable without parentheses. They will be added for you! E.g., just type '^x' and this will be interpreted as '(^x)'.
  • As the exercises get longer, it will take the Café longer to figure out whether or not your answer is correct. Progress is indicated on the status bar.


More Directions, Hints, and Shortcuts...

















Consider the group of people we considered earlier, students in a logic class including — but not limited to — Agnes, Bob, and Carola. (We call this group our "universe of discourse" because these are the people under discussion.) Now, symbolize the sentences below using quantifiers (as well as truth functional connectives, '&', 'v', '>', '=', '~', and the names and predicates from the following key).

universe of discourse: Students including Agnes, Bob, and Carola
a: Agnes, b: Bob, c: Carola
Wx: x will attend law school
Nx: x will need a loan
Sxy: x scored as well as y on the LSAT's.

  1. Someone (in the group) will need a loan.
  2. Someone will attend law school but not need a loan.
  3. Everyone will attend law school, but not everyone will need a loan.
  4. Someone needs a loan but will not attend law school.
  5. Someone scored as well on the LSAT's as Bob, but will need a loan.
  6. Everyone scored as well on the LSAT's as Agnes.